Air-Cooled Football Pads
Professor Nikolaus Graventstein, MD " Temperature BioPhysics and Football Pads," Explore Fall 2005, Volume 10, Number 3, Rearch at The University of Florida.
Presentation to NFL Equipment Managers Meeting, March 7, 2005, Disney's Boardwalk Resort, Orlando, FL (FlashPaper format)
Simulation presented at NFL Equipment Managers conference, March 7, 2005, Orlando, FL, (Shockwave format - requires free Macromedia Shoclwave player)
Presentation to NFL, New York City, NY, November 2, 2004 (FlashPaper format)
Transparent reality simulation of cooling in football pads presented at NFL headquarters, 11/2/04, NY City
National Public Radio's Health in a Heartbeat piece on air-conditioned football pad (no longer available).
Preliminary In-Vitro Experimental Data
Additional testing performed with a T-shirt interposed between the bottle and the football pads indicate that the highest rate of cooling occurs with a wet T-shirt and cooled air flowing through the football pads.
The air-cooled football pads are commercially available as the Temperature Management System (TMS) from Williams Sports Group, a licensee of the University of Florida.
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