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Last Updated 12/05/14

Simulation of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

To reference this educational web simulation according to the APA style for Web references, use:

Pitkin A , Lizdas DE, Lampotang S. (2011): Simulation of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Retrieved <insert date of retrieval here>, from University of Florida Department of Anesthesiology Virtual Anesthesia Machine Web site:

This is a simulation of blood circulation in an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a rare congenital heart defect in which the left ventricle of the heart is underdeveloped.  Due to this condition, blood from the vena cava mixes with blood from the pulmonary vein, creating pulmonary and systemic circulations that occur in parallel.  These infants have unique management requirements.

Users may adjust pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin.  Advanced settings are also accessible.

Special thanks to Andrew D. Pitkin, MBBS, MRCP, FRCA



Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome graphic